跆拳道的英语怎么拼写

来源:学生作业帮助网 编辑:作业帮 时间:2024/07/16 04:18:45
跆拳道的英语怎么拼写

跆拳道的英语怎么拼写
跆拳道的英语怎么拼写

跆拳道的英语怎么拼写
1.kickboxing
n.
[体] 跆拳道
2.taekwondo
n.
[体]跆拳道(亦作T-K-D)

taekwondo
kickboxing

跆拳道
Taekwondo

跆拳道的英文是Taekwondo。

Taekwondo (also, Tae Kwon Do, Taekwon-Do, or Tae Kwon-Do) is a martial art and combat sport originating in Korea. Taekwondo is the national sport of South Korea and sparring, kyeorugi, is an Olympic s...

全部展开

Taekwondo (also, Tae Kwon Do, Taekwon-Do, or Tae Kwon-Do) is a martial art and combat sport originating in Korea. Taekwondo is the national sport of South Korea and sparring, kyeorugi, is an Olympic sporting event. In Korean, derived from hanja, tae (跆) means to destroy with the feet; kwon (拳) means to strike or smash with the hand; and do (道) means "path", "way" or "method". Hence, taekwondo is loosely translated as "the way of the feet and fist".
Taekwondo's popularity has resulted in the divergent evolution of the martial art. As with many other martial arts, taekwondo is a combination of combat technique, self-defense, sport, exercise, entertainment, and philosophy.
Although there are great doctrinal and technical differences among public and private taekwondo organizations, the art in general emphasizes kicks thrown from a mobile stance, using the leg's greater reach and power to disable the opponent from a distance. In sparring, turning, front, reverse turning and side kicks are often used, as well as the backfist and reverse punch; advanced kicks include jump, spin, sliding, and skip kicks, often in combination. Taekwondo training often includes a system of blocks, punches, open-handed strikes and may include various take-downs or sweeps, throws, and joint locks, though it generally does not emphasize grappling. HistoryThe oldest ancestor of taekwondo is an amalgamation of unarmed combat styles developed by three rival Korean kingdoms of Goguryeo, Silla and Baekje.[1] Young men were trained in unarmed combat techniques to develop strength, speed, and survival skills. The most popular of these techniques was subak, with taekkyeon being the most popular of the segments of subak.
Taekwondo practitioners demonstrating their techniques.
As the Goguryeo kingdom grew in power, the neighboring Silla kingdom became comparatively weaker, and an effort was undertaken among the Silla to develop a corps of special warriors. The Silla had a regular army but its military training techniques were less advanced than those of the Goguryeo, and its soldiers were generally of a lesser caliber. The Silla selected young men, some as young as twelve, and trained them in the liberal arts. Those who demonstrated strong natural aptitude were selected as trainees in the new special warrior corps, called the Hwarang. It was believed that young men with a talent for the liberal arts may have the grace to become competent warriors. These warriors were instructed in academic as well as martial arts, learning philosophy, history, a code of ethics, and equestrian sports. Their military training included an extensive weapons program involving swordsmanship and archery, both on horseback and on foot, as well as lessons in military tactics and unarmed combat using subak. Although subak was a leg-oriented art in Goguryeo, Silla's influence added hand techniques to the practice of subak.
In spite of Korea's rich history of ancient and traditional martial arts, Korean martial arts faded into obscurity during the Joseon Dynasty. Korean society became highly centralized under Korean Confucianism and martial arts were lowly regarded in a society whose ideals were epitomized by its scholar-kings.[2] Remnants of traditional martial arts such as subak and taekkyeon were banned from practice by the general populace and reserved for sanctioned military uses although folk practice by the common populace still persisted into the 19th century.[1]
Foreign influence
During the Japanese occupation (1910-1945), the practice of taekkyeon was banned. Although practice of the art nearly vanished, taekkyeon survived through underground teaching and folk custom. As the Japanese colonization established a firm foothold in Korea, the few Koreans who were able to attend Japanese universities were exposed to Okinawan and Japanese martial arts with some even receiving black belts under Gichin Funakoshi and other notable masters such as Kanken Toyama. Koreans in China were also exposed to Chinese martial arts. By 1945, when the Korean peninsula was liberated from Japanese colonization, many martial arts schools were formed and developed under various names such as Tang Soo Do reflecting foreign influence.
At the end of World War II, several Kwans arose. They were: Chung Do Kwan, Moo Duk Kwan, Jidokwan (or Yun Moo Kwan), Chang Moo Kwan, Han Moo Kwan, Oh Do Kwan, Jung Do Kwan, Kang Duk Won, and Song Moo Kwan.
Modern Taekwondo
By the end of the Korean War, nine martial arts schools (translated as kwan) had opened, and South Korean President Syngman Rhee ordered that the various schools unify under a single system. A governmental body selected a naming committee's submission of "tae-kwon-do". Following the submission of the name "taekwondo" on April 11, 1955,[3] the Korean Taekwondo Association (KTA) was formed in 1959 to facilitate the unification.[4] Shortly thereafter, taekwondo made its debut in North America. Standardization efforts in South Korea stalled, as the kwans continued to teach differing styles. Another request from the Korean government for unification resulted in the formation of the Korea Tae Soo Do Association, which changed its name back to the Korean Taekwondo Association in 1965 following a change of leadership. This new leader was General Choi Hong Hi who founded the International Taekwondo Federation on 22nd March 1966 in South Korea. Until this day General Choi is still acknowledged by practitioners of ITF Taekwon-Do as the founder and father of Taekwon-Do. Subsequently, Choi fell out of favor with the authorities in South Korea and moved his organization to Canada in 1972.
In 1972, the Korea Taekwondo Association Central Dojang was opened. A few months later, the name was changed to the Kukkiwon, which means "Master Gary Hausbeck". The Kukkiwon remains the World Taekwondo Headquarters to this day. The following year, the World Taekwondo Federation was formed. The International Olympic Committee recognized the WTF and taekwondo sparring in 1980, and the sport was accepted as a demonstration event at the 1988 Seoul and the 1992 Barcelona Summer Olympic Games. It became an official medal event as of the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games. Taekwondo is one of two Asian martial arts (judo being the other) in the Olympic Games.
The public WTF and private ITF, the two largest taekwondo organizations, operate and train in hundreds of nations and teach the martial art to millions of people each year. Although competition has always been a significant feature of taekwondo, many practitioners study taekwondo for personal development, to learn self-defense, and/or for fun. OrganizationsThe largest taekwondo organizations are the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) and International Taekwondo Federation (ITF). The WTF is headquartered in South Korea and was founded in 1973 by a group of various national taekwondo teams. Its purpose is to coordinate international competition events under the rules of the International Olympic Committee (IOC).
Although the terms "WTF" and "Kukkiwon" are often mistakenly used interchangeably to refer to this organization, the Kukkiwon is a completely different organization which trains and certifies instructors and issues official dan and Poom certificates worldwide. The Kukkiwon has its own unique physical building that contains the administrative offices of Kukkiwon (World Taekwondo Headquarters) in Seoul, South Korea. The Kukkiwon was founded in 1972.
The unofficial training headquarters of the International Taekwondo Federation is located at the Taekwondo Palace located in Pyongyang, North Korea and was founded in the mid-1990s. Today, the International Taekwondo Federation is splintered into three different groups, all claiming to be the original. The three are located in Austria, Canada and North Korea.
Four concrete paving bricks broken with a knife-hand strike. Breaking techniques are often practiced in taekwondo.
Outside of the World Taekwondo Federation and the International Taekwondo Federation, a large number of organizations exist, such as American Taekwondo Federation(ATF), ATA, UITF, USTF, MTA (Midwest Taekwondo Association),(IPTF) International Progressive Taekwondo Federation, TAGB, WTA and so on. These private organizations require that students belong to a member club or school. Events and competitions held by private organizations are mostly closed to other Taekwondo students. However, the WTF-sanctioned events allow any person, regardless of school affiliation or martial arts style, to compete in World Taekwondo Federation events as long as he or she is a member of the WTF Member National Association in his or her nation, which is open to anyone to join. The major technical differences among these many organizations revolve around the patterns, called hyeong 형, poomsae 품새, or tul 틀, sets of prescribed formal sequences of movements that demonstrate mastery of posture, positioning, and technique, sparring rules for competition (e.g. ITF light-contact versus WTF full-contact), and philosophy.
In addition to these private organizations, the original schools (kwans) that formed the organization that would eventually become the Kukkiwon continue to exist as independent fraternal membership organizations that support the WTF and the Kukkiwon. The official curriculum of the kwans is that of the Kukkiwon. The kwans also function as a channel for the issuing of Kukkiwon dan and poom certification (black belt ranks) for their members. Each kwan has its own individual pledge of tenets and manners that describes the organization's goals for personal improvement. For example, the tenets of Oh Do Kwan and the ITF are: courtesy (ye-ui 예의), integrity (yom-chi 염치), perseverance (in-nae 인내), self-control (geuk-gi 극기), and indomitable spirit (baek-jeol-bul-gul 백절불굴). The Jidokwan manners are: view, feel, think, speak, order, contribute, have ability, and conduct rightly.
Some organizations also recognize one or two additional tenets beyond the five original Oh Do Kwan tenets; these are community service (sa-hui-bong-sa 사회봉사) and love (sa-rang 사랑). Features
Stretching to increase flexibility is an important aspect of taekwondo training.See also: and
Taekwondo is famed for its use of kicking techniques, which distinguishes it from martial arts such as karate or southern styles of kung fu. The rationale is that the leg is the longest and strongest weapon a martial artist has, and kicks thus have the greatest potential to execute powerful strikes without successful retaliation.
Taekwondo as a sport and exercise is popular with people of both sexes and of many ages. Physically, taekwondo develops strength, speed, balance, flexibility, and stamina. An example of the union of mental and physical discipline is the breaking of boards, which requires both physical mastery of the technique and the concentration to focus one's strength.
A taekwondo student typically wears a uniform (dobok 도복), often white but sometimes black or other colors, with a belt (tti 띠) tied around the waist. The belt indicates the student's rank. The school or place where instruction is given is called the dojang 도장.
Although each taekwondo club or school will be different, a taekwondo student can typically expect to take part in most or all of the following:
Learning the techniques and curriculum of taekwondo
Both anaerobic and aerobic workout, including stretching
Self-defense techniques (hosinsul 호신술)
Patterns (also called forms, poomsae 품새, tul 틀, hyeong 형)
Sparring (called kyeorugi 겨루기, or matseogi 맞서기 in the ITF), which may include 3-, 2- and 1-step sparring, free-style, arranged, and point sparring, and other types
Relaxation exercises
Falling techniques
Breaking (using techniques to break boards for testing, training and martial arts demonstrations)
Exams to progress to the next rank
A focus on mental and ethical discipline, justice, etiquette, respect, and self-confidence
Some taekwondo instructors also incorporate the use of pressure points, known as ji ap sul as well as grabbing self-defense techniques borrowed from other martial arts, such as Hapkido and Judo. Ranks, belts, and promotionTaekwondo ranks are separated into "junior" and "senior" or "student" and "instructor" sections. The junior section typically consists of ten ranks indicated by the Korean word geup 급 (also Romanized as gup or kup). The junior ranks are usually identified by belts of various colors, depending on the school, so these ranks are sometimes called "color belts". Students begin at tenth geup (usually indicated by a white belt) and advance toward first geup.
The senior section typically includes nine or ten ranks indicated by the Korean word dan 단, also referred to as "black belts" and "degrees" (as in "third dan" or "third-degree black belt"). Black belts begin at first degree and advance to second, third, and so on. The degree is often indicated on the belt itself with stripes, Roman numerals, or other methods; but sometimes black belts are plain and unadorned regardless of rank.
To advance from one rank to the next, students typically go through promotion tests in which they demonstrate their proficiency in the various aspects of the art before a panel of judges. Promotion tests will vary from school to school, but may include such elements as the execution of patterns, which combine various techniques in specific sequences; the breaking of boards, to demonstrate the ability to use techniques with both power and control; sparring and self-defense, to demonstrate the practical application and control of techniques; and answering questions on terminology, concepts, history, and the like, to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the art. Students are sometimes required to take a written test or to submit a research paper in addition to taking the practical test (especially for higher ranks).
Promotion from one geup to the next can proceed fairly rapidly, since schools often allow geup promotions every two, three, or four months. Students of geup rank learn the most basic techniques first, then move on to more advanced techniques as they approach first dan.
In contrast, promotion from one dan to the next can take years. The general rule is that a black belt may advance from one rank to the next only after the number of years equivalent to the rank. For example, a newly-promoted third-degree black belt may not be allowed to promote to fourth-degree until three years have passed. Some organizations also have age requirements related to dan promotions. Dan ranks usually have titles associated with them, such as "master" and "instructor". However, these titles and their associations with specific ranks vary among schools and organizations.
The two main Taekwondo organizations have their own rules and standards when it comes to ranks and the titles that go with them; for details, see Kukkiwon and International Taekwondo Federation. Competition
An axe kick is thrown during a taekwondo sparring match in the UK.
Taekwondo competition typically involves sparring, breaking, patterns, and/or self-defense (hosinsul). However, in Olympic taekwondo competition, only sparring is contested; and in Olympic sparring the WTF competition rules are used. These rules are available at the WTF website.[5]
Taekwondo sparring match in Madrid (Spain).
Under WTF and Olympic rules, sparring takes place between two competitors in an area measuring 10 meters square. Each match or bout consists of three non-stop rounds of contact with rest between rounds. Colored belts fight in 1-minute rounds with a 30-second break, while black belts fight in 2-minute rounds with 1-minute breaks. Points are awarded for permitted, accurate, and powerful techniques to the legal scoring areas. A kick or punch that makes full force contact with the opponent's hogu (a trunk cover that functions as a scoring target) scores one point; a hard kick to the head scores two points. Punches to the head are not allowed. If a competitor is knocked down by a scoring technique and the referee counts, then an additional point is awarded to the opponent. Soft contact to the body and head does not score any points.
Rachel Marcial of the US Armed Forces team (blue) competing in a taekwondo match.
At the end of three rounds, the competitor with the most points wins the match. If, during the match, one competitor gains a 7-point lead over the other, or if one competitor reaches a total of 12 points, then that competitor is immediately declared the winner and the match ends. In the event of a tie at the end of three rounds, a fourth "sudden death" overtime round will be held to determine the winner, after a 1-minute rest period.
Official WTF trunk protector (hogu), forearm guards and shin guards
The ITF sparring rules are similar, but differ from the WTF rules in several respects. For example, hand attacks to the head are allowed; flying techniques score higher than grounded techniques; the competition area is slightly smaller (9 meters square instead of 10 meters); and competitors do not wear the hogu used in Olympic-style sparring (although they are required to wear approved foot and hand protection equipment). The ITF competition rules and regulations are available at the ITF information website.[6] Korean commandsIn taekwondo, Korean language commands are often used. For words used in counting, see Korean numerals.
Word Hangeul Meaning
Charyeot 차렷 Attention
Gyeongnye 경례 Bow
Sabeomnim kke gyeongnye 사범님 께 경례 Bow to the Master Instructor
Baro 바로 Return
Swieo 쉬어 At ease, relax
Kihap 기합 Yell
Junbi 준비 Ready
Sijak 시작 Begin
Gallyeo 갈려 Break (separate)
Gyaesok 계속 Continue
Geuman 그만 Finish (stop)
Dwiro dora 뒤로 돌아 Turn around
Haesan 해산 Dismiss
Muknyeom 묵념 Meditation

收起